Spouting Fountain
   The spouting fountain consists of a large reservoir atop a column with equally-spaced orifices. It is used to relate the velocity of discharge with the depth of the fluid. Various diameters of orifices were used to vary the experimental conditions.

   The Kenyon apparatus was made by  E. S. Ritchie of Boston, and is listed at $50.00 in his 1860 catalogue. If all of the apertures are equal and are pointed horizontally, the jet from the middle should have the longest range. Apparently, these experimental conditions were not met for the three Kenyon students in the Spring of 1977. 

   The middle orifice has a glass plate on the other side of the column, allowing a beam of light to be passed into and down the water stream in a liquid vein demonstration.

                       Kenyon College                                                                                                        Transylvania University
   The unusual spouting fountain of square cross-section at the left is in the Garland Collection of Classical Physics Apparatus at Vanderbilt University. The tank is 24 cm on a side and 110 cm high.

   Unlike the Kenyon and Transylvania instruments, the tank does not have a reservoir at the top to keep the depth of the water essentially constant over the duration of a demonstration. On the other hand, a good deal of water is contained in the tank.

   Projecting toward the viewer at the bottom of the tank is a spigot directed upward. If friction were to be eliminated, the water spouting out of this orifice should reach the level of the water at the top of the tank.

   Note that there are four feet, each with a leveling screw. This is not good design!

   This type of spouting fountain is sometimes called Mariotte's Vase. Corks with glass tubing are placed in the side-holes of the vase.

   The device is on display at the University Museum at the University of Mississippi in Oxford, and forms part of the Millington/Barnard Collection, named after the first two Professors of Natural Philosophy at the University, 1848-1861.

  REFERENCE: Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr., "Nineteenth Century Textbook Illustrations (LVII) The Liquid Vein", Phys. Teach., 35, 207 (1997)
 Return to Fluids Home Page | Return to Home Page